research

What constitutes CBPR?

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MARKETI have recently been mulling over what is and isn’t CBPR.  In particular I was looking for clarity about its relationship to action research.

The terms are often used interchangeably as well as signifying two different types of research. There are various explanations and definitions depending on which country you are in and which discipline your research takes place in.

I settled on two well-known texts written by my favourite authors on the topic of community based participatory research in health.

  • Israel, B. A., Eng, E., Schulz, A. J., & Parker, E. A. (2013). Methods for Community-Based Participatory Research for Health (2nd ed.). San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. (Eds.). (2008). Community-based participatory research for health: from process to outcomes. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

A third text set out nicely the main features to be found in action research.

  • Koshy, E., Waterman, H., & Koshy, V. (2011). Action research in healthcare. London: SAGE.

This is what I think these texts are telling us.

Action research

  • is also known as PAR, community-based study, co-operative enquiry, action science and action learning (Koshy et al. (2011)
  • is mostly conducted in collaborative teams, a community of enquiry, that includes service users who are not researched on, but collaborate within the research team.
  • is participatory and collaborative

CBPR

  • “no one set of CBPR principles is applicable to all partnerships” (Israel et al., 2013 p. 7)
  • key concepts of CBPR are participation, emancipatory knowledge and power relations
  • CBPR involves the interconnected goals of research, action and education

 

Israel et al. (2013) list PAR as one of several collaborative research approaches which have progressively been termed CBPR, particularly in health related fields. PAR grew from social movements and emphasized the importance of voice (Minkler & Wallerstein, 2008).

Minkler & Wallerstein (2008) describe CBPR as a continuum of approaches ranging from action research which is based in the practical problem-solving work of Kurt Lewin and the ‘more revolutionary’ Freirian tradition based on emancipatory education. They use the term CBPR as an umbrella term for an orientation to research and practice which stresses respectful engagement with communities in combining research with education and action for change.

 

COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH CONTINUUM
COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH CONTINUUM

Action research, to varying degrees, involves people affected by a problem, in practical problem solving through a cyclical process of fact finding, action, and evaluation, and sits at the starting point of the continuum. The common thread seems to be that participatory approaches such as action research and CBPR are committed to engagement and power-sharing  with community partners in the research process so that communities benefit from the research (Israel et al., 2013) .

Minkler and Wallerstein (2008) suggest that CBPR is a term being used to signify collaborative research approaches, ranging from action research to PAR, with the gold standard for ending health disparities being at the emancipatory end of the continuum.

Elena Wilson 2015

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Research Story-telling

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Stories about community research challenges
Stories about community research challenges

If you are thinking about writing on this blog about the issues in your CBPR work, have a look at what others are writing on this topic too.

CBPR has many benefits for the community research endeavour, but acknowledging and sharing our stories about what it is really like for researchers actually doing the research with communities, can help beginner researchers to be better prepared before venturing into CBPR work. Your story might be about a smooth sailing project with no issues at all or a project with issues significant enough to keep you awake at night.

Sometimes it helps to read what others have written about this.
Read the contributions on this blog, some of these might sound familiar? but different?
Read the insightful blogging on the subject by Daniel Reeders on The Research Whisperer blog. Daniel gives a “personal account based on things that went awry” in his work.

Then, you might like to add your story to the collection, along-side other CBPR researchers around the world.

Happy reading!

 

Image: Flickr.com

How to carry out a successful CBPR partnership

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How to carry out successful CBPR partnerships
How to carry out successful CBPR partnerships

Promoting Healthy Public Policy through Community-Based Participatory Research: Ten Case Studies

Although not new, this report still has relevance for researchers engaged in community based participatory research and their research partners today. The report looks at 10 case studies of different CBPR partnerships in the US, that are focused on changing policy to improve community health.

Practical recommendations for successful partnerships are made on pages 51 to 54.  Read Report …

 

Image: Filipe Cabrera: Flickr.com

Research Story-telling

Posted on Updated on

Stories about community research challenges
Stories about community research challenges

If you are thinking about writing on this blog about the issues in your CBPR work, have a look at what others are writing on this topic too.

CBPR has many benefits for the community research endeavour, but acknowledging and sharing our stories about what it is really like for researchers actually doing the research with communities, can help beginner researchers to be better prepared before venturing into CBPR work. Your story might be about a smooth sailing project with no issues at all or a project with issues significant enough to keep you awake at night.

Sometimes it helps to read what others have written about this.
Read the contributions on this blog, some of these might sound familiar? but different?
Read the insightful blogging on the subject by Daniel Reeders on The Research Whisperer blog. Daniel gives a “personal account based on things that went awry” in his work.

Then, you might like to add your story to the collection, along-side other CBPR researchers around the world.

Happy reading!

 

Image: Flickr.com

How to carry out a successful CBPR partnership

Posted on Updated on

How to carry out successful CBPR partnerships
How to carry out successful CBPR partnerships

Promoting Healthy Public Policy through Community-Based Participatory Research: Ten Case Studies

Although not new, this report still has relevance for researchers engaged in community based participatory research and their research partners today. The report looks at 10 case studies of different CBPR partnerships in the US, that are focused on changing policy to improve community health.

Practical recommendations for successful partnerships are made on pages 51 to 54.  Read Report …

 

Image: Filipe Cabrera: Flickr.com

CBPR in counselling and psychotherapy research

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Here is a comment contributed via ResearchGate.  Identifying details have been removed.

My colleague and I have recently written an article (under review) about CBPR in counselling and psychotherapy research – the main areas of ethical challenges we identified in this particular field relate to data management and confidentiality, potential distress to co-researchers (including academic co-researchers) and participants – especially if they are current counselling clients. The nature of ethical issues in CBPR will be different for every project depending on the topic and the arrangement – for example, are participants also co-researchers or are co-researchers and participants separate? Are co-researchers part of the same community as participants?

 

Negotiating divergent interests

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Here is another comment from a researcher.  Identifying information has been removed:-

This is very topical for us currently. We are working with a University to teach and inspire students in Community-based and participatory asset mapping, and participatory action research whilst we complete our ethnographies .
Our emphasis on the participatory is welcomed, we feel, but the students have been set a task that involves door-to-door mapping of a survey type. We have stressed the importance of permissions, non-assumed consent, ongoing consent and so forth, and especially working together with villagers to set the strengths, needs and agendas to follow. This may not happen and if it does it may put the students and university in some degree of opposition to state and government drives for the region – something that culturally is not taken lightly by the students.

Our ethical and moral issues concern the integrity of what we are doing together with the people of the area and the interests of the students and university. These may be at odds and we have to negotiate these.